01. History of Hoyle, HoyleGaming.com (retrieved July 23, 2014)
02. Poker Hall of Fame, PokerPages.com (retrieved July 23, 2014)
03. The Conjectural Maverick, Maverick Trails
04. Maverick, According to Hoyle (1957), Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc.
05. Maverick, Stampede (1957), Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc.
06. Maverick, Relic of Fort Tejon (1957), Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc.
Authoritative rule book on popular games.
Edmond Hoyle published the first edition of his book of game rules in 1742, primarily as a treatise on the game of whist. Eventually, he made additions to include standardizing the rules of other games such as backgammon, chess, cribbage, etc. Hoyle died 60 years before poker was invented, but "Hoyle's Games" continued to be published and updated by others, always remaining the authority on the official of the rules of play of popular games. The phrase "according to Hoyle" has come to mean not only the ultimate authority on games and gaming but by extension, on any subject.
According to Hoyle: George Cross discovered an obscure rule in Hoyle's games disallowing straights in five-card stud poker. Although straights were generally accepted almost universally by professional and amateurs alike, the rule of Hoyle — though official — was rarely recognized. In 1876, Cross hired Samantha Crawford to play poker with Bret Maverick and establish at the beginning of the game that they play strictly according to Hoyle. Having agreed, but unaware of the specific rule on straights, Bret played a straight against Samantha's pair of nines, believing he was the clear winner. When confronted with the official rule, he was forced to concede the pot to Samantha, losing thousands of dollars as a result.
Stampede: In May of 1877, Madame Pompey approached Tony Cadiz to place $10,000 on her Mystery Man, Noah Perkins, against his Battling Kreuger in a boxing match at the Golden Nugget Saloon in Deadwood, Dakota Territory. When Cadiz demanded to see her fighter before he put up his money, Pompey reminded him that his offer extended to all challengers, regardless of who it was. Cadiz agreed, but stated that he ran his business according to Hoyle. Although "Hoyle's Games" of the day did not cover boxing or physical contact sports of any kind, Cadiz spoke metaphorically in that he operated his boxing interests under a prescribed system of established rules.
Relic of Fort Tejon: In July of 1878, Bret Maverick was playing poker with Carl Jimson in Jimson's brace joint, the Square Deal Saloon in Silver Springs, New Mexico Territory. During a hand Jimson was dealing, Jimson met Bret's raise and asked how many cards Bret would like to draw. Bret asked politely for a cut before drawing his cards. When Jimson objected, Bret referenced Mr. Hoyle's book of rules, saying that a player is entitled to a cut at any time during the game. Jimson countered by telling Bret that he made the rules at his saloon. Bret responded with surprise, saying that he thought he was playing a poker game, and "you can make up rules for any game you like, but don't call it poker. It's misleading."
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